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Travel Security Advice for Turkey




Turkey is a moderately developed nation with a wide range of tourist facilities of all classes in the main tourist destinations. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Turkey for additional information.


U.S. citizens living or traveling in Turkey are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate at the Department of State’s travel registration page in order to obtain updated information on local travel and security. U.S. citizens without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. Registration is important; it allows the State Department to assist U.S. citizens in the event of an emergency.

Local embassy information is available below and at the Department of State’s list of embassies and consulates.

The U.S. Embassy in Ankara is located at 110 Atatürk Boulevard, tel.: (90) (312) 455-5555, fax (90) (312) 468-6131. Visa information is also available at (90) (212) 344-4444. Non-emergency e-mail messages about consular matters may be sent through the web site at http://turkey.usembassy.gov/. For afterhours emergencies, call (90) (312) 455 5555.

The U.S. Consulate General in Istanbul is located at Kaplicalar Mevkii Sokak No. 2, 34460, Istinye, Sariyer, tel.: (90) (212) 335-9000, fax (90) (212) 335-9102. Non-emergency e-mail messages about consular matters may be sent to the Consulate’s American Citizen Services section at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . In emergency situations, please call the consulate switchboard and ask for American Citizen Services.

The U.S. Consulate in Adana is located at Girne Bulvari No. 212, Güzelevler Mahallesi, Yüregir, Adana, Turkey. Tel.: (90) (322) 346-6262, fax (90) (322) 346-7916. General information can be accessed at the Consulate’s website.

The U.S. Consular Agent in Izmir can be contacted at (90) (232) 464-8755


A passport and visa are required. Currently, holders of all types of passports, if they are traveling as tourists, can purchase a 90-day sticker visa at the port of entry for USD $20 cash. Travelers arriving by cruise ship for a day trip to Turkey do not require a visa if they are not staying on shore overnight. For further information, travelers in the U.S. may contact the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey at 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone: (202) 612-6700, or the Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, or New York. Visit the Embassy of Turkey website for the most current visa information. Overseas, travelers may contact a Turkish embassy or consulate.

Official and diplomatic passports holders traveling on official business must obtain a visa from a Turkish embassy or consulate before arriving in Turkey.

All travelers planning to stay more than three months for any purpose are required to obtain a visa from a Turkish embassy or consulate. Such travelers must also apply for a residence/work permit or Turkish ID card within the first month of their arrival in Turkey. This includes anyone who plans to spend more than three months doing research, studying, or working in Turkey.

All travelers are advised to obtain entry stamps on the passport page containing their visa at the first port of entry before transferring to domestic flights. Failure to obtain entry stamps at the port of entry may cause serious difficulties for travelers when they attempt to depart the country. On multiple occasions, Turkish authorities have detained travelers overnight in such situations.

Due to a revision of Turkish residency requirements in 2008, all travelers should also be careful not to stay beyond the date permitted by their visas or residency permits. Once a traveler has stayed beyond the date permitted in their visa or residency permit, he or she will be subject to deportation, a fine, and a travel ban restricting their return to Turkey for a period of between three months to five years. The time of the ban is determined by the length of time of the “overstay.”

Crossing the border with Iraq can be time-consuming, as the Turkish Government tightly controls entry and exit. All travelers wishing to cross into Iraq from Turkey must still have a valid travel document, such as a passport. In fact, travelers wishing to enter Turkey from any of its neighboring countries around Turkey must have both a valid travel document and current Turkish visa.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any specific HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Turkey, however, Turkey will generally deport foreigners once their HIV positive status is discovered.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our website. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information page.


Terrorist bombings over the past several years – some causing significant numbers of casualties – have struck religious, government, government-owned, political, tourist and business targets in a number of locations in Turkey. These incidents show an increased willingness on the part of some terrorist groups to attack Western targets.

Some terrorist groups have deliberately targeted U.S. and Western interests as well. Terrorists claiming association with al-Qa’ida were responsible for suicide bombings in Istanbul in 2003 that targeted Western interests. The possibility of terrorist attacks, both transnational and indigenous, remains high.

The Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK, also known as Kongra Gel) is one of the most active terrorist organizations in Turkey. Over the last few decades, the PKK has been responsible for the deaths of more than 30,000 Turkish citizens. This terrorist group continues to target Turkish officials and various civilian facilities.

The following paragraphs describe the extent of terrorist activity in major cities and regions in Turkey:

Ankara: In May 2007, an explosive device was detonated by a suicide bomber in the Ulus district of Ankara during rush hour, resulting in six deaths and injuring more than 100. While there was no claim made by the PKK, the material used in the device was similar to that frequently used by the group. In September 2007, 600 kilograms of explosives were found in a minivan parked in a multi-story car park in the central Sihhiye area of Ankara. Investigations revealed a suspect with ties to the PKK.

Istanbul: On July 9, 2008, a terrorist attack on the Turkish police guarding the U.S. Consulate General in Istanbul resulted in the deaths of three police officers and wounding of two other police personnel. Responsibility for the attack has not been claimed by or assigned to a specific terrorist group. In November 2003, al-Qa’ida-associated suicide bombers attacked the British Consulate, an HSBC Bank, and two synagogues, killing 57 and wounding hundreds of people. In April 2007, Turkish police captured a PKK terrorist in one of Istanbul’s major tourist centers, Taksim Square. The female terrorist was intercepted carrying a bomb made of five kilograms of A-4 explosive; the target was suspected to be a large gathering celebrating the founding of the Turkish Police. In December 2007, a suspected male PKK member carrying three kilograms of A-4 explosive material in a backpack was arrested by Turkish National Police in Istanbul’s Mecidiyekoy Square; the intended target was believed to be the Istanbul Metro. In October 2008, a suspected female PKK member was captured at Okmeydani in Sisli district with 8 kilograms of explosives.

In Istanbul, small-scale bombings and violent demonstrations, and more recently vehicle arsons, have occurred regularly since 2006. Most of these incidents have happened in neighborhoods not generally frequented by tourists, including a July 2008 bombing in the Güngören neighborhood that killed 17 Turkish citizens. PKK supporters on a number of occasions have set public buses on fire after ordering passengers to disembark. In April 2006, an attack of this type resulted in three deaths and at least one severe wounding. Thus far, no attacks on buses have taken place in tourist areas of the city. In Istanbul, until 2009, May Day (May 1) celebrations had resulted in violent clashes between police and workers who have been prohibited from commemorating this day in Taksim Square.

Mediterranean/Aegean Regions: The Kurdistan Liberation Falcons (TAK, also known as the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks), which was named a “Specially Designated Global Terrorist” organization by the Department of State in January 2008 and is ostensibly aligned with the PKK, has routinely warned tourists not to visit Turkey. Consistent with its threats, this group claimed responsibility for a number of bombings in tourist areas in the Mediterranean and Aegean coastal resort areas (as well as in Istanbul). In July 2005, TAK claimed responsibility for a bomb that exploded on a minibus in the holiday resort town of Kusadasi, killing five persons, including a British tourist and an Irish tourist. In June 2006, the group also was responsible for an explosion that killed three European tourists in Manavgat, a town in Antalya Province, as well as other attacks in the Antalya and Mugla Provinces. In August 2006, ten Britons and six Turks were injured when an improvised explosive device on their minibus detonated in Marmaris, and a bomb killed three and injured 87 in a blast at a shopping area in the city of Antalya.

Eastern and Southeastern Provinces (including Adana): In January 2008, Turkish police mounted a major operation against an Al-Qa’ida cell in the southeastern city of Gaziantep. The operation, which was launched to prevent what was believe to be an imminent terrorist attack by the cell, resulted in the death or capture of nearly two dozen Turkish members of a group strongly linked to Al-Qa’ida. One Turkish policeman was killed, and two wounded, in the operation. In addition, the PKK retains a presence in certain parts of southeastern Turkey, and regularly carries out attacks focused primarily on security personnel; occasionally, however, attacks injure or kill civilians. Travel is difficult and should be considered dangerous in some portions of this region. Americans traveling in southeastern Turkey, as well as to Mt. Ararat in Agri province in the northeast should exercise extreme caution. On July 3, 2008, three German tourists were kidnapped by armed PKK militants while camped on Mt. Ararat with their 13-member climbing team. This kidnapping highlights the risks to traveling in this area and in Turkey’s southeast.

Roadside explosions caused by remote-controlled land mines or other improvised explosive devices in the Batman, Sirnak, Hakkâri, Siirt, Mardin, Diyarbakir and Tunceli provinces occur regularly. Sound bombs are a frequent event throughout the region. There have also been a number of PKK raids on Jandarma (village police) posts and ambushes of Turkish security force vehicle patrols in many of Turkey’s rural southeastern areas. In 2005, the PKK attacked two trains and kidnapped two Turkish government employees in the region. In August 2006, two bombs exploded in Adana, injuring four people. In September 2006, a bomb detonated in the city of Diyarbakir, killing ten and injuring 15 Turkish nationals. In January 2008, a PKK remote controlled car bomb killed seven people and injured 66 when it exploded on a street in downtown Diyarbakir.

In June 2007, the Turkish General Staff declared parts of the southeastern provinces of Sirnak, Hakkâri, and Siirt as “sensitive areas” due to ongoing counter-insurgency operations carried out by Turkish military forces. Access to these areas, mostly along the Iraqi border, is controlled by the security forces.

Visitors to southeastern Turkey should use commercial air travel whenever possible. If road travel is necessary, travelers are advised to drive only during daylight hours and on major highways. The Turkish Jandarma and police forces monitor checkpoints on roads throughout the southeastern region. Travelers should be cooperative if stopped at any checkpoint. Drivers and all passengers in the vehicle should be prepared to provide identification cards or passports, a driver’s license, and vehicle registration if stopped. At these checkpoints, roll down the driver’s side window (the passenger side also, in vehicles with tinted windows) when stopped by security force officials. Security forces can then safely inspect the vehicle and its occupants. Remain calm, do not make any sudden movements, and obey all instructions immediately. Security officials may restrict access to some roads at times, and security force escort vehicles may be required to “convoy” visitors through troublesome areas. In some cases, this must be arranged in advance. Use of public transportation, at any time, is strongly discouraged in the southeastern region.

Department of State personnel are subject to travel restrictions in the provinces of Sirnak, Diyarbakir, Van, Siirt, Mus, Mardin, Batman, Bingol, Tunceli, Hakkâri, Bitlis, and Elazig. U.S. military and Department of Defense civilians should consult their local area commander regarding any restrictions in effect for southeastern Turkey. Mount Ararat, in Agri province, is a special military zone and access permission must be obtained from the Turkish government through a Turkish embassy or consulate before coming to Turkey.

For all of Turkey, travelers are cautioned not to accept letters, parcels, or other items from strangers for delivery either in or outside of Turkey. The PKK has attempted to use foreigners to deliver messages and packages in or outside of Turkey. If discovered, individuals could be arrested for aiding and abetting the terrorist organization.

In addition to terrorist activities, there have been several instances of violence targeting Christians in Turkey: the fatal shooting of a Catholic priest in Trabzon in February 2006; the murder of Armenian Turkish writer/journalist Hrant Dink in Istanbul in January 2007; the murder of three Christians, one of them a German citizen, in a Bible bookstore in Malatya in April 2007; the stabbing of a Catholic priest in Izmir in December 2007, and the assault on a Christian in Istanbul in August 2009. Following Israel’s Gaza offensive in December 2008, there were incidents of anti-Semitic graffiti and statements by private individuals. The level of anti-Semetic feeling remains high, although there have been no reports of physical assaults.

Americans should exercise caution and good judgment, keep a low profile, and remain vigilant with regard to their personal security. Terrorists do not distinguish between official and civilian targets. As security is increased at official U.S. facilities, terrorists may seek softer targets. These may include facilities where Americans and Westerners are known to live, congregate, shop, or visit. U.S. citizens should remain in a heightened state of personal security awareness when attendance at such locations is unavoidable.

International and domestic political issues sometimes trigger demonstrations in most major cities in Turkey. We wish to remind American citizens that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly escalate into violence. American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations, if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations. Travelers should be alert to local media reports and other sources for information about possible demonstrations or civil disturbances, and should obey the instructions of security personnel at all times.

For the latest security information, U.S. citizens traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs' website,

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free within the U.S. and Canada, or by calling a regular toll line, 1-202-501-4444, from other countries. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s extensive tips and advice on traveling safely abroad.


While the rate of street crime remains relatively low in Turkey, it has increased in large urban centers such as Istanbul and Izmir. In Istanbul, petty street crime is most common in tourist areas such as Taksim Square, Sultanahmet, and in the areas around the Grand Bazaar and Spice (Egyptian) Bazaar. It is strongly recommended that you carry only what is needed, and leave your U.S. passport in your hotel safe.

As in other large metropolitan areas throughout the world, common street crimes include pick pocketing, purse snatching, and mugging. Often the crime is preceded by some sort of diversion such as an argument, a fight, or someone bumping you. Residential crime appears to be on the increase in major cities, with criminals targeting ground floor apartments for theft. Visitors should not be complacent regarding personal safety or the protection of valuables. The same precautions employed in the United States should be followed in Turkey.

The Embassy has noticed a recent increase in crimes against women. Female travelers are urged to exercise caution and use common sense. Female travelers are advised to request a female attendant in the “mixed” Turkish baths, or hamans. Incidents involving the use of “date rape” drugs (Nembutal and Benzodiazepine) have also been reported.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.


If you are the victim of a crime abroad, you should contact the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate (see end of this sheet or see the Department of State’s list of embassies and consulates). This includes the loss or theft of a U.S. passport. The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, help you find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds may be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent of the “911” emergency line (for police, fire or ambulance) in Turkey is 155. The emergency number for ambulance assistance only is 112.

Please see our information on victims of crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.


While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Below are some of the laws of which foreign travelers should be aware:

Insulting the State: It is illegal to show disrespect to the name or image of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic, or to insult the Turkish government, flag, or security forces.

Religious Proselytizing: Although there is no specific law against religious proselytizing, some activities can lead to arrest under laws that regulate expression, educational institutions, and religious meetings. The Department of State's Annual Report on International Religious Freedom contains additional information on religious freedom in Turkey.

Cultural Artifacts: Turkish law has a broad definition of "antiquities" and makes it a crime to remove any from the country. Offenders are prosecuted. Under Turkish law, all historic sites such as fortresses, castles and ruins, and everything in them, on the grounds, or in the water, are the property of the Turkish government. While many sites do not have signs cautioning the unwary, official silence does not mean official consent. Certain antiquities may be purchased, but only from authorized dealers who have been issued a certificate by a museum for each item they are authorized to sell. At the time of departure, travelers who purchase such items may be asked to present the receipt and certificate. You may be arrested and placed in jail for one month or longer. Contact the Embassy of Turkey in Washington or one of Turkey's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

In addition to being subject to all Turkish laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to additional laws that impose special obligations on Turkish citizens. Male U.S. citizens over the age of 18 who are also considered to be Turkish citizens may be subject to conscription and compulsory military service upon arrival and to other aspects of Turkish law while in Turkey. Those who may be affected are strongly advised to consult with Turkish officials and inquire at a Turkish embassy or consulate to determine their status before traveling. The Government of Turkey will not permit American officials to visit or provide consular assistance to Turkish/American dual nationals arrested in Turkey. Please see our information on dual nationality.

On January 1, 2005, Turkey created the “New Turkish Lira.” On January 1, 2009, the term “New” was eliminated and Turkey introduced a new, smaller-sized currency referred to as Turkish Lira. Until December 31, 2009, both currencies will be accepted by shopkeepers at one exchange rate. The old “New Turkish Lira” banknotes will expire on December 31, 2009, but can still be redeemed from January 1, 2010, until December 31, 2019, at branches of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey and Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ziraat Bankasi. For more information please see the website of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.

Disaster Preparedness: Turkey is a seismically active country and earthquakes occur throughout Turkey. A major earthquake along the North Anatolian fault line in 1999 killed approximately 18,000 in the Izmit area, approximately 60 miles east of Istanbul. American citizens should make contingency plans and leave emergency contact information with family members outside of Turkey. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The U.S. Consulate General in Istanbul can provide a Disaster Preparedness checklist upon request via email.


The care available in Turkish hospitals varies greatly. The new, private hospitals in Ankara, Antalya, and Istanbul have modern facilities and equipment, numerous U.S.-trained specialists, and international accreditation. However, they still may be unable to treat certain serious conditions. The State Department prefers medical evacuation for its personnel who will be giving birth; however there are private hospitals in Ankara and Istanbul whose level of obstetric care is considered to meet Western standards. Those planning to remain in Turkey for a prolonged period of time should consider bringing or securing a supply of necessary chronic medications (e.g., heart medications, birth control pills) to cover them while they are in the country, as certain medications are difficult to obtain in Turkey. Nursing care and diagnostic testing (including mammograms) meet American standards at specific institutions in the larger cities. Health care standards are lower in small cities in Turkey in comparison to bigger cities such as Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Adana.

Travelers are advised to drink only bottled water or water that has been filtered and boiled. Bottled beverages are considered safe to drink. Most local dairy products, including milk, yogurt, and cheese, are safe to consume. However, care must be taken when purchasing all perishable products, as many vendors do not have adequate refrigeration. Travelers are advised to wash vegetables and fruits carefully and to cook meat thoroughly before eating.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC website. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the infectious diseases section of the World Health Organization (WHO) website. The WHO website also contains additional health information for travelers, including detailed country-specific health information.


The Department of State strongly urges U.S. citizens to consult their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to determine whether the policy applies overseas and whether it covers emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. For more information, please see our medical insurance overseas page.


While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.

Motorists should drive defensively at all times and take every precaution for safety while driving in Turkey. Drivers routinely ignore traffic regulations, including driving through red lights and stop signs and turning left from the far right hand lane. These driving practices cause frequent traffic accidents. Drivers should be aware of several driving practices that are prevalent in Turkey. Normally drivers who experience car troubles or accidents pull over by the side of the road and turn on their emergency lights to warn other drivers, but many drivers place a large rock or a pile of rocks on the road about 10-15 meters behind their vehicles instead of turning on their emergency lights.

Drivers should exercise extreme caution while driving at night. The Embassy recommends that you not drive after dark outside of major cities. Some local drivers tend to drive without their lights on or with very low lights, making it impossible to see their vehicles. While driving, it is also not unusual to come across dead animals, large rocks, missing sewer covers, deep holes or objects that have fallen from trucks.

Roads in Turkey run the full spectrum from single lane country roads to modern, divided, Trans-European motorways built to European standards. Highways in the western and southwestern, coastal portion of the country, which are frequented by tourists, are generally in good condition and well maintained.

Those who wish to enter the country with their own vehicle will have to provide the following documentation: passport, international driving license, car license (note: if the vehicle belongs to another individual, a power of attorney is needed), international green card (insurance card) with the “valid in Turkey” sign visible, and a transit book "carnet de passage" (for those who want to proceed to the Middle East). The vehicle can be brought into Turkey for up to 6 months. If an extension is needed, apply to the Turkish Touring and Automobile Club (Turkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu 1.Oto Sanayi Sitesi Yani, 4.Levent, Istanbul, Tel: (212) 282 81 40 or Fax: (212) 282 80 42), or to the General Directorate of Customs (Gumrukler Genel Md.lugu Ulus Ankara Tel: (312) 306-8000, Fax: (312) 306-8995, 306-8965 or 306-8195) before the end of the period declared.

In Case of an Accident: Drivers are to remain at the traffic accident site, and they are not to move their vehicle — even to move it out of the way — until the Traffic Police arrive. The new Turkish traffic rule does not require a call to the police in the cases where no injury or death occurs, but instead it only requires the drivers to fill out a form and get pictures of the car damage. As the form is in Turkish only, it is the best for non-Turkish speakers to call and wait for the police. Otherwise, drivers can be held liable for the accident. The accident should be reported to the Traffic Police (Tel: 154) or Jandarma (Tel. 156). That report will then need to be certified by the nearest local authority. The owner should apply to the customs authority with his passport and report. If the vehicle can be repaired, it is necessary to inform the customs authority first and then take the vehicle to a garage. If the vehicle is not repairable and if the owner wishes to leave the country without his vehicle, he has to deliver it to the nearest customs office, and the registration of his vehicle on his passport will be cancelled (only after the cancellation can the owner of the vehicle leave the country).

Train Travel: There have been several train accidents on the popular Ankara-Istanbul train route. These accidents have led to loss of life and injury. In 2003 there were 556 accidents (collisions, derailments, falling from train) resulting in 162 fatalities and 299 injuries on trains throughout Turkey. The previous year’s statistics reflect the same pattern. Two large accidents in 2004 on the Ankara-Istanbul line resulted in 45 fatalities and scores of injured alone.

Please refer to our Road Safety page and the U.S. Embassy in Ankara’s website for more information. Also we suggest you visit the Embassy of Turkey website for more information on driving in Turkey.


The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Turkey's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Turkey's air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.


Please see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

This replaces the Country Specific Information for Turkey dated February 13, 2009, to update sections on Threats to Safety and Security, Crime, Criminal Penalties, and Health Information.

The UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office also has information regarding travel to Turkey HERE.......

Looking for an Embassy ?, You can also check out our World Wide Embassies Listings Section HERE (For US Citizens) or HERE (For UK Citizens).......

There is also a Malaria Warning for Turkey HERE.....


The SW Team........


Direct Gov Travel News and Alerts