MALARIA NEWS

[1/1] MedWorm: Malaria
MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Malaria category.

[1/40] Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

[2/40] Involvement of Nod2 in the innate immune response elicited by malarial pigment hemozoin

[3/40] [Department of Error] Department of Error

[4/40] Structures of Plasmodium vivax serine hydroxymethyltransferase: implications for ligand-binding specificity and functional control

[5/40] Coinfection and the evolution of drug resistance

[6/40] Plasmodium berghei histamine‐releasing factor favours liver‐stage development via inhibition of IL‐6 production and associates with a severe outcome of disease

[7/40] Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Versus Efavirenz-Based ART for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

[8/40] Randomized Trial of Artesunate-Amodiaquine, Atovaquone-Proguanil, and Artesunate-Atovaquone-Proguanil for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Children

[9/40] The Potential Impact of Adding Ivermectin to a Mass Treatment Intervention to Reduce Malaria Transmission: A Modelling Study

[10/40] Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses Induced by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization

[11/40] Whole-Genome Scans Provide Evidence of Adaptive Evolution in Malawian Plasmodium falciparum Isolates

[12/40] Directional Selection at the pfmdr1, pfcrt, pfubp1, and pfap2mu Loci of Plasmodium falciparum in Kenyan Children Treated With ACT

[13/40] Serological markers for monitoring historical changes in malaria transmission intensity in a highly endemic region of Western Kenya, 1994-2009

[14/40] Towards malaria microscopy at the point-of-contact: an assessment of the diagnostic performance of the Newton Nm1 microscope in Uganda

[15/40] Malaria diagnostics: now and the future

[16/40] Malarial pathocoenosis: beneficial and deleterious interactions between malaria and other human diseases

[17/40] Congo-Kinshasa: Improving Health in the Kasaï Occidental Province in DRC

[18/40] The independent effect of living in malaria hotspots on future malaria infection: an observational study from Misungwi, Tanzania

[19/40] Transmission patterns of Plasmodium falciparum by Anopheles gambiae in Benin

[20/40] The fluid management of adults with severe malaria

[21/40] Are topical insect repellents effective against malaria in endemic populations? A systematic review and meta-analysis

[22/40] Does socio-economic status explain the differentials in malaria parasite prevalence? Evidence from The Gambia

[23/40] Genetic polymorphism and amino acid sequence variation in Plasmodium falciparum GLURP R2 repeat region in Assam, India, at an interval of five years

[24/40] First imported relapse case of Plasmodium vivax malaria and analysis of its origin by CSP sequencing in Henan Province, China

[25/40] Patterns and predictors of malaria care-seeking, diagnostic testing, and artemisinin-based combination therapy for children under five with fever in Northern Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

[26/40] Africa: Call for Stories and Ideas for Gmap2

[27/40] Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis

[28/40] Namibia's path toward malaria elimination: a case study of malaria strategies and costs along the northern border

[29/40] A heavy legacy: offspring of malaria-infected mosquitoes show reduced disease resistance

[30/40] Determinants of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on islands of pre- and post-malaria elimination: an application of the health belief model in Vanuatu

[31/40] Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models

[32/40] Coverage and efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine against malaria in pregnancy in Côte d¿Ivoire five years after its implementation

[33/40] The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 3β Sequence Reveals Contrasting Parasite Populations in Southern and Northwestern Thailand

[34/40] Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

[35/40] Encapsulation of metalloporphyrins improves their capacity to block the viability of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

[36/40] Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model

[37/40] Factors affecting providers' delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy: a five-country analysis of national service provision assessment surveys

[38/40] Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes

[39/40] Mymetics’ virosome technology selected for MVI’s new malaria vaccine candidate

[40/40] Preventing Malaria While Fighting Ebola in Liberia
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Malaria Information

RS-Malaria_in_Africa

RS-Malaria_Information_1RS-Malaria_Information_2


Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells.

Symptoms of malaria include fever, headache, and vomiting, and usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of malaria medicines.

Key interventions to control malaria include: prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies; use of insecticidal nets by people at risk; and indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes.

Early diagnosis of malaria and its effective and timely treatment reduces morbidity and prevents death from malaria. Diagnostic tools - microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests - and medicines - artemisinin-based combination treatments - allow effective case management. Diagnostic tests and combination medicines of good quality need to be used correctly and strategically to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and to reduce the risk of parasite resistance to medicines.

Half of the world's population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 243 million cases led to estimated 863 000 deaths in 2008. The advent of long-lasting insecticidal nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy, plus a revival of support for indoor residual spraying of insecticide, presents a new opportunity for large-scale malaria control. The World malaria report 2009 describes the global distribution of cases and deaths, how WHO-recommended control strategies have been adopted and implemented in endemic countries, sources of funding for malaria control, and recent evidence that prevention and treatment can alleviate the burden of disease.

Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease spread by mosquitoes. It is common in many tropical countries and is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium.

There are four types of Plasmodium parasites: Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, malariae, and ovale and they are all carried by night-biting Anopheles mosquitoes.

Malaria is found in tropical regions of the world, including large areas of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, parts of the Middle and Far East and some Pacific OceanIslands, such as Papua New Guinea. Recent estimates show that as many as 300 to 500 million people become ill with falciparum malaria every year.

Malaria is widespread in over 100 countries and 3.2 billion people are believed to live in areas where malaria occurs.

Types of malaria vary between regions. For example falciparum is more common in Africa, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Papua New Guinea. Vivax is the strain usually found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Mexico and Central America. Both vivax and falciparum are present in South America and South East Asia. Ovale and malariae are uncommon.

In many African countries, particularly those in West Africa, malaria transmission is high all year-round, with many people infected. Adults born and brought up and still living in these regions may develop some immunity against malaria, although this immunity is not complete. Babies and children who have not yet developed any immunity can become seriously unwell and many babies and young children die from malaria in these areas of high malaria transmission. Visitors to these regions are at high risk of malaria, as they have no protective immunity.

In other regions of the world, such as South and South East Asia, the risk depends on factors like the weather and time of year. Short outbreaks of varying strengths tend to occur, especially during and after rainy seasons. This means malaria transmission in these areas is less intense, so people have poor immunity and all age groups are at risk of serious illness.

Malaria is a huge global health issue, with an estimated 300 to 500 million cases, and at least one million deaths every year. Ninety percent of malaria deaths occur in African countries near the equator, below the SaharaDesert. Most of those who die are young children.

Data from the Health Protection Agency Malaria Reference Laboratory

Each year approximately 1,750 people return to the UK with malaria. Most illness is due to infection with the potentially fatal falciparum strain. There are between five and 15 deaths due to malaria reported every year in the UK. In 2006 there were 1,758 reported malaria cases, with eight deaths. All the UK deaths were due to falciparum malaria caught in Africa.

Failing to take malaria prevention tablets or not taking the appropriate tablets is a key reason for catching malaria. Most UK travellers who catch malaria either do not take tablets or do not take the right tablets for the risk areas they visit.

The risk of dying from malaria depends on several factors, including:

Lack of awareness of malaria risks

Taking the wrong malaria prevention tablets or not realising tablets are needed

Mistaking malaria for another illness such as flu

Delaying seeing a doctor or starting treatment

Risk for Travellers

Any travellers visiting an area with malaria can catch the disease. This includes people originally from countries with malaria, who now live in malaria free regions such as the UK and return home to visit friends and relatives. If you are born and brought up in a country with malaria you may have some immunity to the disease, however, this immunity is not total and disappears quickly once you leave the risk country. If your children are born outside risk areas, they will not have any immunity to malaria.

The risk of malaria depends on:

Where you go

What you do

Where you stay

What time of year you travel

Whether you take the right malaria prevention tablets

How carefully you try to avoid mosquito bites

Transmission

Malaria spreads to humans via the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. She needs protein from blood in order for her eggs to grow. A diagram showing the life cycle of the malaria parasite can be seen on the Centers for Disease Control website.

Anopheles mosquitoes usually bite between dusk and dawn and are attracted to humans by our body heat, smell and the carbon dioxide we breathe out.

Signs and Symptoms

Malaria usually starts with fever, headache and muscle pain. Coughing and diarrhoea may also be present. Symptoms can rapidly progress to a high fever and severe muscle aches. Falciparum malaria can develop as quickly as eight days after exposure, or as long as several months (the latter is more common with vivax or ovale malaria).

With vivax or ovale malaria, the fever occurs in 48 hour cycles. You can initially feel cold, with shivering lasting 15 to 60 minutes, and then develop fever that lasts two to six hours, followed by extreme sweating.

Any type of malaria can be dangerous. However, malaria caused by falciparum can progress very rapidly and lead to severe medical problems. If prompt treatment is not given, it can be life threatening. The most serious complication of falciparum malaria occurs when malaria parasites enter the brain’s blood vessels. This can lead to coma and death. Other possible complications include kidney failure, fluid in the lungs, low blood sugar, increases in the body’s acid levels, anaemia, abnormal blood clotting and internal bleeding.

You should be aware of the signs and symptoms of malaria, especially fever, and must seek immediate medical attention if you experience any, either while you are away or for up to year after you return home.

Treatment

Anyone with fever who has travelled to malaria risk areas must be tested urgently for malaria. Falciparum malaria is a medical emergency. If you are diagnosed with malaria, you should be admitted to hospital as you usually need specialist treatment.

Malaria tests are arranged by your doctor, specialist tropical diseases clinic or Accident and Emergency department. Your doctor will send a sample of your blood to a laboratory. Staff use microscopes to look for malaria parasites on glass slides which have been smeared with small amounts of blood (known as thick and thin blood films). The results should always be available on the same day. If you have any type of malaria treatment must be started straight away.

Malaria testing kits were given to travellers in the past that could be used to check for malaria during travel. However, they are often not used correctly and now are not recommended for travellers.

The kind of treatment your doctor will give you depends on which type of parasite has caused the malaria and whether or not it is resistant to any drugs. Generally, tablets or capsules are given, but if you are very ill you will need to have medicine given to you through your veins (this is often called a drip). Doctors should get advice about the best treatment from experts in infectious diseases or tropical medicine. There are also formal written treatment guidelines for doctors.

Travellers with signs of malaria who are in very remote areas during their trip can consider self-treatment with emergency standby medicines, after discussion with their nurse or doctor before the trip. These drugs are only meant for use in isolated regions when malaria symptoms are present and there is no access to immediate medical care. To make sure the correct treatment is given and confirm that the illness is malaria, you must still see a doctor as soon as possible. Standby treatment drugs are not a replacement for malaria prevention tablets. Before you travel, your doctor or specialist travel clinic will advise you if these drugs are right for you, but usually they are only prescribed in exceptional circumstances.

Prevention

Preventing malaria involves several steps that are known as the A, B, C, and D of malaria prevention:

Awareness of the risk

Bite avoidance measures

Compliance with appropriate malaria prevention tablets

Diagnosis and treatment if symptoms develop

You should see your GP or Practice Nurse or go to a Travel Clinic for specific advice and appropriate preventative tablets for the country you are visiting before you travel.

Links

Health Protection Agency

http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/malaria/default.htm

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheets. Insect bite avoidance.

http://www.nathnac.org/travel/misc/travellers_mos.htm

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheets. Malaria chemoprophylaxis

http://www.nathnac.org/travel/factsheets/malaria_chemoprophyl

axis.htm